A. TOPOGRAPHY SCENARIO. Nepal is naturally divided into three main “belts” running east to west.
1. TERAI: About 17% of the total land area of the one-third of Nepal, known as “The Terai”.
2. HILLS: The central belt of Nepal is the hill region, ranging in altitude from 610 meters (2,000 ft.) to 1,600 meters (5,249 ft.). This belt consists mostly of hills and valleys and here lies Kathmandu, The Capital, and largest, city.
3. HIMALAYAN: The trans-himalayan region lies along the northern sector of Nepal. It is between 1,600 meters (5249 ft.) and 8,848 meters (29,028 ft.) at the peak of Mt. Everest, The highest mountain on earth.
4. CLIMATE: There are five clearly defined climatic zones in Nepal: Tropical, sub-tropical, temperate, alpine and sub-arctic.
5. PEOPLES: Nepal is a country of mixed races, languages, religion and cultures. Different peoples have come into the area from all directions, mostly from the north, mongoloid types, and south, Aryan Indian people.
B. POLITICAL MAP With seven states or provinces of Nepal second map of Nepal with seventy—five district of Nepal names in English for both map.
C. ABOUT NEPAL
THE CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY AND CURRENT UPDATE OF NEPAL
1769: Nepal becomes a unified nation state and a Hindu kingdom and1846-1950: autocratic rule of Rana family.1950: popular revolt succeeds in removing Rana regime and introducing multi-party democracy with constitutional monarchy, 1960: king dissolves parliament removes elected prime minister, and bans political parties. There is no religious freedom, conversion is illegal, and Christians are harassed and imprisoned, 1975: king Birendra crowned “divine emperor” of all Hindus, 1990: pro-democracy demonstrations establish multi-party parliament, forcing king to become constitutional monarch.
State persecution of Christian converts ends, 1996: communist party of Nepal (Maoist) begins what is to be a 10-year civil war, 2002: king Gyanendra dissolves parliament, removes prime minister, rules as Absolute monarch, declares emergency, and deploys the army against the Maoists. Political parties start street protests against unconstitutional rule of king.2006: mass people’s movement and demonstrations force king to restore parliament. Peace agreement signed with Maoists.
Democratic secular republic established.2008: election of the constituent assembly (ca), 2012: ca fails to meet extended deadline to draft and promulgate new constitution and is dissolved, leaving president, advised by caretaker cabinet, to rule by decree. March 2013: non-political government formed under chief justice. Elections for new ca announced for 19 November 2013.
CURRENT POLITICS OF NEPAL
Nepal is a federal republic democratic country .a federal republic was established in May 2008 which ended 240 years of monarchy rule in Nepal. The politics of Nepal functions within a framework of a republic with a multi-party system. Currently, the position of president (head of state) is occupied by Bidhya Devi bhandari.at present time the position of prime minister (head of government) is held by K.P.Sharma Oli. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and his cabinet, while legislative power is vested in the constituent assembly.
NEPAL STILL IS A HINDU NATION CONSTITUTIONALLY
But during the last two decades it has evolved into a modern democratic republic. Before 1990, Nepalese were not permitted to change their religion, and converts to Christianity were severely harassed and imprisoned. a decade-long military conflict with Maoist communist forces ended with the establishment of a democratic republic, but the peace process has yet to produce a constitution. Civil right society and human right organization are advocating for the new constitution to guarantee every person the right to choose or change their religion or belief, and to communicate it to others, which draft proposals would endanger. There is also a need to safeguard harmonious coexistence between people of the many different faiths which exist in Nepal.
FREEDOM OF RELIGION AND EXPRESSION OF FAITH
At present, there is systematic discrimination or organized suppression of members of minority religions. Buddhists and Muslims have generally been treated with respect, as have members of local traditional religions. But religions which are newer to Nepal, such as the Christian and other new religion have not always been tolerated and treated well at all. Militant movements with links to India were responsible for religiously-motivated killings of Christians in 2007 and 2008.
A key issue now is that the right to freedom of religion or belief must be protected fully in the new constitution. The mandate for the constitution is that it must be fully consistent with universally accepted human rights, including the conventions approved by Nepal, but this is not the case with draft proposals on the right to freedom of religion or belief.
CONVERSION TO CHRISTIAN FAITH IN NEPAL
The issue of conversion is controversial or emotive in Nepal. Although at present
there is no full freedom. Exists a general freedom for Hindu to choose one’s
personal faith but for Christian public evangelism and the teaching of a new faith
to those under eighteen can provoke strong antagonism and they could be
arrested and put in jail.
Draft proposals for the new constitution deal with conversion in a problematic
way. The provision that “no person shall be entitled to convert another person
from one religion to another” leaves little room for seeing religious conversion as
a positive choice, and it is not consistent with Nepal’s international human rights
FUNERAL OR BURIAL RIGHTS
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the bodies of the dead are traditionally cremated,
although there is one ethnic community, the Kirats, who bury their dead. There is
no land in Nepal traditionally allocated to Christians for burial. Christians and
Muslims both find themselves seeking land for burial, but this is a particularly
severe problem for Christian churches who find Hindus are unwilling to sell land if
it is to be used for burial. In some rural areas, Christians seeking to bury their
dead have found themselves victims of violent reactions from local Hindus who
have seized and forcibly cremated the body. The supreme court of Nepal has
established that the state is not responsible for providing land for burial, but is
responsible for providing protection when there are obstructions to the burial of
the dead on church owned land.
Since women have traditionally had such a low status in society, the development
and protection of women’s rights and the participation of women in education
and all sectors of society is a key issue for the future of Nepal. Gender-based
violence is still a major problem within the family, on city streets, and in rural
areas. Dalit and ‘low’ caste women are particularly vulnerable. The requirement in
the 2008 elections that 33% of MPs must be women were an historic step
forward, but this has not been matched in other areas of society.
However strong Nepal’s laws may be, they are irrelevant if they are not
implemented properly. The widespread impunity for those committing serious
crimes is a major issue. No one has yet been prosecuted for crimes committed
during the decade-long conflict. Since that time, the perpetrators of murders,
tortures, rapes and other serious crimes are not being arrested, prosecuted or
convicted. Police inefficiency and corruption are partly responsible, but political
leaders show little determination to implement the law, and political interference
at the highest level into criminal investigations and prosecutions has been a major
cause of impunity for criminals.
THE BAPTIST CONVENTION OF NEPAL
Baptist Convention of Nepal has been working for over many years with the local,
regional and national churches and other groups, including the inter-religious
network, to promote freedom of religion and related human rights. We have also
sent letters in the Nepali language to constituent assembly members, and
requested to take action provide equal justice under and rule of law of the nation
D. ECONOMIC SCENARIO
Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with
about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily
dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 22-25% of GDP.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for more than
70% of the population and accounting for a little over one-third of GDP. Industrial
activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses,
jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting
its potential in hydro-power, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially
feasible capacity, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have
hampered foreign investment.
Landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, underdeveloped
transportation infrastructure, civil strife and labor unrest, and its susceptibility to
natural disaster. The lack of political consensus in the past several years has
delayed national budgets and prevented much-needed economic reform,
although the government passed a full budget in 2013.
E. RELIGIOUS SCENARIO
Hinduism and Buddhism are the two dominant religions in Nepal. Hindus make up
about 90% of the population and Buddhists approximately 7%. The remaining 3%
is divided between Muslims (2.5%) and Christians (.5% – approximately 1.500,000
nationwide). Hinduism is the official state religion of Nepal but other religious
beliefs are “tolerated”. it is still illegal to convert from one religion to another.
While church services can be held openly, occasional persecution continues for
evangelism occurring outside the church walls. Christians can be sentenced to one-year prison for attempting to convert a person from another faith and up to
six years for baptizing a convert. Pastor Peter Nepal has personally survived
severe religious persecution. There is permanent physical damage to his body. He
has been imprisoned seven times, most recently in 1989. He has been beaten
severely and has suffered kindly send your tax deductible gift directly to our Nepal
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